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      經濟學人:一周要聞 日本德仁天皇即位 IS領導人罕見露面 阿根廷舉行全國罷工

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      The world this week

      本周要聞
      Politics
      政治
      Juan Guaidó, who is recognised as interim president of Venezuela by many democracies, appeared outside an air-force base in Caracas and urged the armed forces to overthrow the socialist dictatorship of Nicolás Maduro. Leopoldo López, an opposition figure kept under house arrest by the regime, appeared with Mr Guaidó after being freed by security personnel. America reiterated its support for Mr Guaidó. Backed by Russia and Cuba, Mr Maduro said he had defeated an attempted coup. Amid more protests, Mr Guaidó called for strikes to topple the government.
      胡安·瓜伊多(Juan Guaido)被許多民主國家承認為委內瑞拉臨時總統,他現身加拉加斯的一個空軍基地,呼吁軍隊推翻尼古拉斯·馬杜羅(Nicolas Maduro)的社會主義獨裁統治。被當局軟禁的反對派人物萊奧波爾多·洛佩茲(Leopoldo Lopez)在被安全人員解救后與瓜伊多一同現身。美國重申了對瓜伊多的支持。得到俄羅斯和古巴支持的馬杜羅表示,他挫敗了一起未遂政變。在更多的抗議活動中,瓜伊多呼吁民眾罷工來推翻政府。
      Unions staged a national strike in Argentina to protest against the austerity policies of Mauricio Macri, the president. Mr Macri’s popularity has taken a dive of late, and he is up for re-election in October. Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, a spendthrift populist ex-president, could unseat him, a prospect that scares investors.
      阿根廷工會舉行全國罷工,抗議毛里西奧·馬克里(Mauricio Macri)的緊縮政策。最近,馬克里的支持率大幅下降,他將于10月競選連任。揮霍無度的民粹主義前總統克里斯蒂娜·費爾南德斯·德基什內爾(Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner)可能會將他趕下臺,這一前景令投資者感到恐慌。

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      China sentenced a Canadian citizen to death for drug-trafficking. It is the second time this year a Canadian has received a death sentence in China. Some observers think this is in reprisal for Canada arresting the finance director of Huawei, a Chinese telecoms-equipment company.

      中國以販賣毒品罪判處一名加拿大公民死刑。這是今年第二次加拿大人在中國被判死刑。一些觀察家猜想,這是對加拿大逮捕中國電信設備公司華為財務總監的回應。
      Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the leader of Islamic State, appeared in a video for the first time since proclaiming the creation of a caliphate across parts of Iraq and Syria five years ago. (He has been heard in audio recordings since then.) In the new video Mr Baghdadi notes his group’s defeat at Baghuz, its last stronghold in Syria, but vows to fight on.
      “伊斯蘭國”(Islamic State)領導人阿布·巴克爾·巴格達迪在一段視頻中出境,這是他五年前宣布在伊拉克和敘利亞部分地區建立哈里發國以來首次出現在視頻中。(自那時起,他的聲音只在錄音中出現。)在這段新視頻中,巴格達迪提到了其組織在巴格茲的失敗,這是該組織在敘利亞的最后一個據點,但他發誓要繼續戰斗。
      The White House said it was working towards designating the Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organisation. The decision would bring sanctions on what was once the world’s pre-eminent Islamist movement. Egypt’s president, Abdel-Fattah al-Sisi, who toppled a Brotherhood-led government in 2013, reportedly requested the move.
      白宮表示,正在努力將穆斯林兄弟會定性為恐怖組織。這一決定將對曾經世界上最杰出的伊斯蘭組織實施制裁。據報道,埃及總統阿卜杜勒-法塔赫塞西(Abdel-Fattah al-Sisi)要求采取這一行動。2013年,塞西推翻了由穆斯林兄弟會領導的政府。
      The IMF said Iran’s GDP would contract by 6% this year, caused in large part by American sanctions on Iranian oil exports. Annual inflation could reach 37%, the fund warned. The crisis is fuelling popular discontent with the government and ruling clerics.
      國際貨幣基金組織表示,由于美國對伊朗石油出口的制裁,伊朗今年的GDP將下降6%。國際貨幣基金組織警告稱,年通脹率可能達到37%。這場危機加劇了民眾對政府和執政的神職人員的不滿。
      The African Union extended a deadline imposed on coup leaders in Sudan to hand power to a civilian administration. The military junta was initially given 15 days. This has been extended by another 60 days.
      非洲聯盟延長了蘇丹政變領導人將權力移交給文職政府的最后期限。軍政府最初被給予15天的時間。但是這一期限又被延長了60天。
      China dropped its objection to a proposal in the un to list Masood Azhar, the leader of a Pakistani jihadist group, as a terrorist. This allowed the un to declare sanctions on Mr Azhar, including the freezing of his assets and a travel ban. His group, Jaish-e-Muhammad, claimed responsibility for a suicide-bombing that killed 40 soldiers in Indian-administered Kashmir in February. China had previously opposed such sanctions, apparently in deference to Pakistan, a close ally.
      中國不再反對聯合國將巴基斯坦圣戰組織頭目馬蘇德列為恐怖分子的提議。這使得聯合國能夠宣布對馬蘇德的制裁,包括凍結其資產和旅行禁令。他的組織“穆罕默德軍”(Jaish-e-Muhammad)宣稱對今年2月在印控克什米爾發生的一起自殺式炸彈襲擊負責。中國此前反對此類制裁,顯然是出于對親密盟友的尊重。
      Akihito, the emperor of Japan, abdicated. He was succeeded by his son, Naruhito. Akihito won acclaim during his 30-year reign for apologising for Japan’s misdeeds in the second world war.
      日本明仁天皇退位。其子皇太子德仁繼承了他的王位。明仁天皇在30年的統治期間為日本在二戰中的錯誤行為道歉,此舉贏得了贊譽。

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      arrest [ə'rest]

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      vt. 逮捕,拘留
      n. 逮捕,拘留

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      coup [ku:]

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      n. 政變,砰然的一擊,妙計,出乎意料的行動

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      civilian [si'viljən]

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      adj. 平民的
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      v. 打,撞,罷工,劃

       
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