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      2017年英語專業八級真題聽力 Mini-lecture(2)

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      While writing may be the preferred mode for a contract, in many other contexts, speech will be more appropriate.

      擬定協議時人們傾向“寫”的形式,而在許多情況下,“說”比較合適。
      Because the most common type of speech—face-to-face conversation—is highly interactive.
      因為面對面交談這一說話最常見的形式,具有極強的交互性。
      This mode is well-suited to many social contexts, such as casual conversations over lunch, business transactions in a grocery store, discussions between students and teachers in a classroom.
      這個模式適用的社會情境有很多,比如午餐時的閑聊,零售店里的商業交易,課堂上的師生討論。
      And in these contexts, interactive dialogues have many advantages over writing.
      在這些情境中,互動式對話對比書寫的優勢便顯現出來。
      For instance, individuals engaged in conversation can ask for immediate clarification if there is a question about something said;
      比如,談話中如果說過的內容出現問題,談話者可以立即給出明確解釋。
      in a letter to a friend, in contrast, such immediacy is lacking.
      而在寫給朋友的信中,解釋就沒有這么及時了。
      When speaking to one another, speakers are face to face and can therefore see how individuals react to what is said.
      談話時,說話者面對面,也就可以看到對方對所談內容的反應。
      On the other hand, writing creates distance between writer and reader, preventing the writer from getting any immediate reaction from the reader.
      而書寫拉開了書寫者和讀者的距離,書寫者沒辦法得知讀者看到書寫內容時的直接反應。
      Speech is oral, thus making it possible to use intonation to emphasize words or phrased and express emotion.
      說話都是口頭的,因此可以借助語調強調重點詞語,表達感情。
      Of course, one might say that writing has punctuation.
      當然,也有人會說,書寫還有標點符號呢。
      Well, it can express only a small proportion of the features that intonation has.
      對,標點符號只能表現語調能表現出的一小部分信息。
      Because speech is created "on-line," it is produced quickly and easily.
      因為說話都是“在線的”,方便快捷。
      This may result in many "ungrammatical" constructions, but rarely do these rough sentences cause miscommunications.
      這可能就出現了很多語法錯誤,但是這樣不講究的句子很少引起誤解。
      You know, if there is a misunderstanding, it can be easily corrected.
      因為如果發生誤解,談話者可以立即改正。
      On the contrary, writing is much more deliberate.
      相反,書寫需要深思熟慮。
      It require planning, editing and thus taking much more time to produce on the part of the writer.
      書寫需要書寫者打草稿,修改,然后再完整地寫出來。
      Because of all these characteristics of writing, if an individual desires a casual, intimate encounter with a friend, he or she is more likely to meet personally than write a letter.
      以上都是書寫的特征。因此人們想跟朋友親密又自在地交流時,一般都是去見一面,而不是寫信。
      In this case, writing a letter to a friend might turn out to be too formal.
      在這種情況下,給朋友寫信顯得太正式了。
      Of course, in today's world, the highly-developed technology has made such encounters possible with "instant messaging" over a computer or a smart phone.
      當然,在當今世界,技術高度發達,電腦或者手機上的一條即時信息,就可以實現這樣的交流。
      And if someone wishes to have such an encounter with a friend living many miles away, then this kind of on-line written "chat" can mimic a face-to-face conversation.
      如果想要和千里之外的朋友親密自在地交談,這種在線書寫版的“閑聊”可以暫時代替面對面交談。
      But because such conversations are a hybrid of speech and writing, they still lack the intimacy and immediacy of a face-to-face conversation.
      不過,因為這樣的談話是說話與書寫的混合體,跟面對面交談比起來,通常沒有那么親密,也沒有那么即時。

      重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
      intimacy ['intiməsi]

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      n. 親密,隱私

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      emphasize ['emfəsaiz]

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      vt. 強調,著重

       
      appropriate [ə'prəupriət]

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      adj. 適當的,相稱的
      vt. 撥出(款項)

      聯想記憶
      conversation [.kɔnvə'seiʃən]

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      n. 會話,談話

      聯想記憶
      clarification ['klærifi'keiʃən]

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      n. 澄清,闡明

      聯想記憶
      hybrid ['haibrid]

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      n. 混血兒,雜種,混合物

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      misunderstanding ['misʌndə'stændiŋ]

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      n. 誤會,誤解
      misunderstand的

       
      proportion [prə'pɔ:ʃən]

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      n. 比例,均衡,部份,(復)體積,規模
      vt

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      contrary ['kɔntrəri]

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      adj. 相反的,截然不同的
      adv. 相反(

      聯想記憶
      immediate [i'mi:djət]

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      adj. 立即的,即刻的,直接的,最接近的

      聯想記憶
      ?

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